离散制造、流程制造、重复制造与超级BOM

现在肯定好多人肯定为什么是离散制造、什么是重复制造、什么是流程制造困惑,我也是,也会因为这个问题而困惑,一个企业属于流程制造行业,到底改用流程制造还是用离散制造更还是用重复制造更好呢?我认为这个没有一个标准的答案,主要还是要看这个企业管理模式,业务模式,思想模式,一句话,做SAP主要是为了客户满意,所有的东西没有绝对的好,还是绝对的不好,就像有两把枪,一把沙漠之鹰,一把左轮手枪,你想用他们来枪毙一个死罪的犯人,用哪把枪呢?两把枪起到的效果肯定都一样的。

 基于这三种模式我就做些简要的介绍,从中给大家找寻一点规律性的东西:

大背景:

离散制造:

主数据:物料主数据、工作中心、BOM、工  艺 路 线、生产版本

流程制造:

主数据:物料主数据、资    源、BOM、主   配   方、生产版本

重复制造:

主数据:物料主数据、工作中心、BOM、定额工艺路线、生产版本

三者区别:

物料主要数据上:离散制造和流程制造没有本质的区别(从系统的角度),重复制造需要在MRP视图中填写对应的字段,详细内容见下图:

重复制造:代表了此物料用于重复制造行业

重复生产参数文件:决定了此物料MFBF报工方式物料反冲、入库的一些设定

工作中心区别:

离散制造、重复制造中叫工作中心中叫工作中心;流程制造中叫资源

离散制造:0001、0003(类别)

重复制造、离散制造:0007(类别)

流程制造:0008(类别)

备注:类别为什么选择上述那些类别,我会在以后的文章中一一详细介

工艺路线的区别:

离散制造:工艺路线(生产一定的数量需要多长时间)

流程制造:主配方(和工艺路线差不多)

重复制造:定额工艺路线(一定的时间生产多少数量)

BOM的区别:

离散制造、重复制造、流程制造几乎没有区别,也可以说没有区别

备注:后学文章会一一详细介绍销售BOM 标准BOM  工程BOM 生产订单BOM 等BOM的区别以及配置联系

生产版本的区别:工艺路线和BOM的排列组合(排列组合:数学术语,我数学专业的喜欢这样说)

离散制造:太多的人都知道,不想说了

流程制造:差不多

重复制造:这个有点区别,定额工艺路线填写的地方是“基于比例的计划”为啥这样呢,这个要问写这个东西的人了

然后在说为啥要用超级BOM:

例如我生产一个桌子:

桌子:桌子面、桌子腿、桌子架

桌子面分为:红色、白色、黄色、蓝色、黑色、绿色

桌子腿:也分为以上那么多颜色

桌子架同上:也是那么多颜色

如果按照排列组合的原理,一个桌子的编码就有:6*6*6=216个编码,如果这样搞的话,不搞死客户了,所以就出现了特性、特性值的概念,也就避免了那么冗余、繁杂的编码,这就是为啥要出现SUPER BOM,我会在以后的日子里针对每个业务模式结合系统场景详细的给大家一一介绍。

业务角度:

离散制造与流程制造

制造业中,生产管理是企业组织的核心,生产管理占到企业所有的工作50%以上,并与企业组织中的其它管理活动息息相关。制造业生产管理的具体内容有:生产计划、排程、存货管理、质量管理、车间管理、物料采购、配送、设备维护等管理活动。

   制造业中,生产管理是企业组织的核心,生产管理占到企业所有的工作50%以上,并与企业组织中的其它管理活动息息相关。制造业生产管理的具体内容有:生产计划、排程、存货管理、质量管理、车间管理、物料采购、配送、设备维护等管理活动。

   其中投入包括:人力、设备、物料、信息、技术、能源、土地等劳动资源要素。

   产出包括两大类:有形产品和无形产品。

   中间的变换过程,也就是劳动过程、价值增值过程,即运作过程。

   离散型制造企业的生产特征是:

   A、生产计划

   a) 影响计划的因素较多,生产计划的制订非常复杂;
   b) 能力需求是根据每个产品混合建立,并且很难预测。

   B、生产过程控制

   a) 生产任务多,生产过程控制非常困难;
   b) 生产数据多,且数据的收集、维护和检索工作量大;
   c) 工作流根据特定产品的不同经过不同的加工车间。因每个生产任务对同一车间能力的需求不同,因此工作流经常出现不平衡;
   d) 因产品的种类变化较多,非标准产品多,设备和工人必须有足够灵活的适应能力;
   e) 通常情况下,一个产品的加工周期较长,每项工作在工作中心前的排队时间很长,引起加工时间的延迟和在制品库存的增加。

   C、成本管理

   a) 原材料、半成品、产成品、废品频繁出入库、成本计算复杂,需要针对成本对象并随着生产过程进行成本的归集和分配;
   b) 使用标准成本法进行成本核算;
   c)注重实际成本和标准成本的差异比较和不同角度的成本分析。

   在我国,离散型制造企业分布的行业较广,主要包括:机械加工、电子元器件制造、汽车、服装、家具、五金、医疗设备、玩具生产等。流程制造(Flow Manufacturing): 流程制造包括重复生产(Repetitive Manufacturing)和连续生产(Continuous Manufacturing)两种类型。重复生产又叫大批量生产,与连续生产有很多相同之处,区别仅在于生产的产品是否可分离。重复生产的产品通常可一个个分开,它是由离散制造的高度标准化后,为批量生产而形成的一种方式;连续生产的产品是连续不断地经过加工设备,一批产品通常不可分开。

   流程型制造企业的生产特征是:

   A、生产计划 

   a) 计划制定简单,常以日产量的方式下达计划,计划也相对稳定; 
   b) 生产设备的能力固定。

   B、生产过程控制 

   a) 工艺固定,工作中心的安排符合工艺路线。通过各个工作中心的时间接近相同;
   b) 工作中心是专门生产有限的相似的产品,工具和设备为专门的产品而设计;
   c) 物料从一个工作点到另外一个工作点使用机器传动,有一些在制品库存;
   d) 生产过程主要专注于物料的数量、质量和工艺参数的控制; 
   e) 因为工作流程是自动的,实施和控制相对简单;
   f) 生产领料常以倒冲的方式进行。连续生产企业的特有特征; 
   a) 配方的管理要求很高,如配方的安全性、保密性;
   b) 需要对产品的质量进行跟踪,往往需要从产成品到半成品、供应商等进行跟踪,因此对批次管理要求较高;
   c) 某些产品常常有保质期; 
   d) 生产过程中常常出现联产品、副产品、等级品。

   重复生产的行业主要有:电子装配、家电产品、各种电器等,常常表现为流水线的方式;连续生产的行业主要有:化工、食品、饮料、制药、烟草等,常常通过管道进行各工序之间的传递

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